Bullying’s Negative Effect on Academic Achievement

Authors

  • Ana Maria Gomes Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa
  • Mariana Costa Martins Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa
  • Manuel Farinha Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa
  • Beatriz Silva Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa
  • Edite Ferreira Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa
  • Alexandre Castro Caldas Universidade Católica de Lisboa
  • Tânia Brandão Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa

https://doi.org/10.17583/ijep.2020.4812

Keywords:


Downloads

Abstract

Bullying's a phenomenon that carries great harm for those involved (bully or victim alike) in which academic achievement is harmed as well. However, the strength of such impact is yet to be clarified, existing many possibilities to explore. Or in other words, many variables that can justify such connection - classroom behavior being one example.

The goal of the present investigation is to study the impact that bullying (while mediated by the classroom behavior) has on the academic achievement.

The sample consisted of 288 children (from 1st year to 4th year’s students); and their teachers (whom reported their classroom behavior). Results showed that the bullying situation itself, didn’t significantly explain the academic achievement of those involved. However, from classroom behavior it was found an indirect effect between bullying and academic achievement. Within classroom behavior, the main contributive dimensions were - victim related, the excessive motor activity; and bully related, oppositional behaviors, excessive motor activity and ADHD index.

This results alert to the importance of the educational agents’ attention given to the existing behavior in their classrooms. Not only because of the disruption created in each classroom’s environment, but also as a possible sign of an involvement in the existing bullying dynamics.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Ana Maria Gomes, Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa

Clinical and Health Psychologist, Master in Psychosomatics, PhD in Psychosomatics and post Doctoral.

Professor at the Autonomous University of Lisbon and Researcher at the Psychological Research Center of the Autónoma University of Lisbon (CIP-UAL).

Mariana Costa Martins, Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa

Clinical and Health Psychologist, Master degree in Clinical Psychology, Researcher at the Autónoma University of Lisbon.

Manuel Farinha, Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa

Clinical and Health Psychologist, Master degree in Clinical and Health Psychology - Cognitive Behavioral Interventions in Psychological and Health Disorders, researcher at the Autónoma University of Lisbon.

Beatriz Silva, Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa

Clinical and Health Psychologist, Master degree in Clinical Psychology and Counseling. Researcher at the Autónoma University of Lisbon

Edite Ferreira, Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa

Clinical and Health Psychologist, Master Degree in Clinical Psychology and Counseling. Researcher at the Autónoma University of Lisbon.

Alexandre Castro Caldas, Universidade Católica de Lisboa

Neurologist, PhD in Psychiatry, full Professor and Director of the Institute of Health Sciences of the Portuguese Catholic University.

Tânia Brandão, Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa

Clinical and Health Psychologist, PhD in Psychology.

Professor at the Autonomous University of Lisbon and Researcher at the Psychological Research Center of the Autónoma University of Lisbon (CIP-UAL).

References

APA. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5™ (5th ed.). Arlington, VA, US: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.

Google Scholar Crossref

Airasian, P. W. (1984). Classroom assessment and educational improvement. Paper presented at the conference, Classroom Assessment: A Key to Educational Excellence, Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, OR.

Google Scholar Crossref

Barkley, R. A. (2003). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In E. J. Mash & R. A. Barkley (Eds.), Child psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 75–143). New York: Guilford Press.

Google Scholar Crossref

Beran, T. (2008). Consequences of being bullied at school. In D. Pepler & W. Craig (Eds.), Understanding and addressing bullying: an international perspective (pp. 44–66). Bloomington: Authorhouse.

Google Scholar Crossref

Bonica, C., Arnold, D., Fisher, P., Zeljo, A., & Yershova, K. (2003). Relational aggression, relational victimization, and language development in preschoolers. Social Development, 12(4), 551 – 562. doi: 10.1111/1467-9507.00248

Google Scholar Crossref

Boulton, M. J., & Smith, P. K. (1994). Bully/victim problems in middle-school children: Stability, self-perceived competence, peer-perceptions and peer-acceptance. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12, 315-329. doi:10.1111/j.2044-835X.1994.tb00637.x

Google Scholar Crossref

Brookhart, S. M. (1991). Grading practices and validity. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 10, 35-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3992.1991.tb00182.x

Google Scholar Crossref

Brookhart, S. M. (1994). Teachers' grading: Practice and theory. Applied Measurement in Education, 7, 279-301. doi: 10.1207/s15324818ame0704_2

Google Scholar Crossref

Buhs, E. S. (2005). Peer rejection, negative peer treatment, and school adjustment: Self-concept and classroom engagement as mediating processes. Journal of School Psychology, 43(5), 407–424. doi:10.1016/j.jsp.2005.09.001

Google Scholar Crossref

Camodeca, M., Goossens, F. A., Schuengel, C., & Meerum Terwogt, M. (2003). Links between social information processing in middle childhood and involvement in bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 29, 116−127.

Google Scholar Crossref

Cross, L. H., & Frary, R. B. (1996, April). Hodgepodge grading: Endorsed by students and teachers alike. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council on Measurement in Education, New York.

Google Scholar Crossref

Coie, J., Dodge, K., & Lynam, D. (2006). Aggression and antisocial behavior, social, emotional, and personality development. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (pp. 719 – 788). New York: Wiley.

Google Scholar Crossref

Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Majumdar, A., Evans, S. W., Manos, M. J., Caserta, D., . . . Carter, R. L. (2013). Elementary and middle school teacher perceptions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder incidence. Child & Youth Care Forum, 42, 87–99. doi: 10.1007/s10566-013-9194-1

Google Scholar Crossref

Faraone, S. V., Sergeant, J., Gillberg, C., & Biederman, J. (2003). The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: Is it an American condition? World Psychiatry, 2, 104–113.

Google Scholar Crossref

Frick, P., Kamphaus, R. W., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Christ, M. G., Hart, E., et al. (1991). Academic underachievement and the disruptive behavior disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 289–294. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.59.2.289.

Google Scholar Crossref

Garandeau, C., & Cillessen, A. (2006). From indirect aggression to invisible aggression: A conceptual view on bullying and peer group manipulation. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11(6), 612 – 625. doi: 10.1016/j.avb.2005.08.005

Google Scholar Crossref

Gau, S. S., Chong, M. Y., Chen, T. H., & Cheng, A. T. (2005). A 3-year panel study of mental disorders among adolescents in Taiwan. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1344–1350. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.7.1344

Google Scholar Crossref

Hanish, L. D., & Guerra, N. G. (2002). A longitudinal analysis of patterns of adjustment following peer victimization. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 69–89. doi: 10.1017/S0954579402001049

Google Scholar Crossref

Hawker, D. S., Boulton, M. J. (2000). Twenty years’ research on peer victimization and psychosocial maladjustment: a meta-analytic review of cross-sectional studies. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 41(4), 441–455. doi: 10.1111/1469-7610.00629

Google Scholar Crossref

Healy, K.L. & Sanders, M.R. (2018). Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 49(5), 800-813. doi: 10.1007/s10578-018-0793-9

Google Scholar Crossref

Hymel, S., Comfort, C., Schonert-Reichl, K., & McDougall, P. (1996). Academic failure and school dropout: The influence of peers. In J. Juvonen & K.Wentzel (Eds.), Social motivation: Understanding children’s school adjustment (pp. 313 – 345). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Google Scholar Crossref

Jevtić, B, & Mikanović, B. (2017). Students of Physical Education and Sports Victims and Bullies, Their Academic Self-Concept and Interpersonal Trust Within The Family. Physical Education and Sport, 15(2), 288-293. doi: 10.22190/FUPES1702283J

Google Scholar Crossref

Jones, S. M., Bouffard, S. M., & Weissbourd, R. (2013). Educators social and emotional skills vita to learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 94, 62-65. doi: 10.1177/003172171309400815

Google Scholar Crossref

Kochenderfer, B. J., & Ladd, G. W. (1996). Peer victimization: Cause or consequence of school maladjustment? Child Development, 67, 1305–1317. doi: 10.2307/1131701

Google Scholar Crossref

Landau, S. & Milich, R. (1988). Social communication patterns of attention-deficit-disordered boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 16(1), 69-81.

Google Scholar Crossref

Lansford, J. E., Capanna C., Dodge K. A., Caprara, G. V., Bates, J. E., Pettit, G. S., Pastorelli, C. (2007). Peer social preference and depressive symptoms of children in Italy and the United States. International Journal of Behavior Development, 31, 274–283. doi:10.1177/0165025407076440

Google Scholar Crossref

Marso, R. N., & Figge, F. L. (1993). Teachers' testing knowledge, skills, and practices. In S. T. Wise (Ed.), Teacher training in measurement and assessment skills. Lincoln, NB: Buros Institute of Mental Measurement.

Google Scholar Crossref

Moore, S. E., Norman, R. E., Suetani, S., Thomas, H. J., Sly, P. D., Scott, J. S. (2013). Consequences of bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. World Journal of Psychiatry. 7(1), 60-76. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v7.i1.60

Google Scholar Crossref

McMillan, J. H., Myran, S., & Workman, D. (2002). Elementary Teachers’ Classroom Assessment and Grading Practices. The Journal of Educational Research, 95(4), 203–213. doi: 10.1080/00220670209596593

Google Scholar Crossref

Nakamoto, J., & Schwartz, D. (2010). Is Peer Victimization Associated with Academic Achievement? A Meta-analytic Review. Social Development, 19(2), 221–242. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2009.00539.x

Google Scholar Crossref

Oldehinkel, A. J., Rosmalen, J. G., Veenstra, R., Dijkstra, J. K., Ormel, J. (2007). Being admired or being liked: classroom social status and depressive problems in early adolescent girls and boys. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 417–427. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9100-0

Google Scholar Crossref

Olthof, T., Goossens, F. A., Vermande, M. M., Aleva, E. A., & van der Meulen, M. (2011). Bullying as a strategic behavior: Relations with desired and acquired dominance in the peer group. Journal of School Psychology, 49, 339–359. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2011.03.003

Google Scholar Crossref

Olweus, D. (1989). Questionnaire for Students (Junior and Senior versions). Unpublished manuscript.

Google Scholar Crossref

Olweus, D. (2012). Cyberbullying: An overrated phenomenon? European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(5), 520-538. doi:10.1080/17405629.2012.682358

Google Scholar Crossref

O’Moore, M. & Kirkham, C. (2001). Self-Esteem and Its Relationship to Bullying Behaviour. Aggressive Behavior, 27, 269-283.

Google Scholar Crossref

Owens, J. S., Holdaway, A. S., Smith, J., Evans, S. W., Himawan, L. K., Coles, E. K., et al. (2017). Rates of Common Classroom Behavior Management Strategies and Their Associations With Challenging Student Behavior in Elementary School. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 26(3), 156–169. doi: 10.1177/1063426617712501

Google Scholar Crossref

Risser, S. D. (2012). Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School. Psychology in the Schools, 50(1), 13–26. doi: 10.1002/pits.21655

Google Scholar Crossref

Rodkin, P. C., Espelage, D. L., & Hanish, L. D. (2015). A relational framework for understanding bullying: Developmental antecedents and outcomes. American Psychologist, 70(4), 311–321. doi:10.1037/a0038658

Google Scholar Crossref

Schwartz, D., Gorman, A. H., Nakamoto, J., & Toblin, R. L. (2005). Victimization in the peer group and children’s academic functioning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 425–435. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.97.3.425

Google Scholar Crossref

Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippett, N. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 49(4), 376-385. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01846.x

Google Scholar Crossref

Sousa Machado, T., Tomás da Silva, J., Pacheco Miguel, J., & Vieira, S. (2018). Vinculação professor-aluno como fator de sucesso académico. 4º Congresso da Ordem dos Psicólogos Portugueses.

Google Scholar Crossref

Sutton, J., Smith, P., & Swettenham, J. (1999). Social cognition and bullying: Social inadequacy or skilled manipulation? British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17, 435 – 450. doi: 10.1348/026151099165384

Google Scholar Crossref

Troop-Gordon, W. & Kuntz, K.J. (2013). The unique and interactive contributions of peer victimization and teacher-child relationships to children’s school adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. doi:10.1007/s10802-013-9776-2

Google Scholar Crossref

Vaillancourt, T., & McDougall, P. (2013). The Link Between Childhood Exposure to Violence and Academic Achievement: Complex Pathways. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(8), 1177–1178. doi: 10.1007/s10802-013-9803-3

Google Scholar Crossref

Whalen, C.K & Henker, B. (1985). The social worlds of hyperactive (ADDH) children. Clinical Psychology Review, 5 (5), 447-478. doi: 10.1016/0272-7358(85)90004-2

Google Scholar Crossref

Wheeler, J. & Carlson, C. (2010) Social functioning and emotional regulation in the attention deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology,29(1), 30-42.

Google Scholar Crossref

Woods, S., & Wolke, D. (2004). Direct and relational bullying among primary school children and academic achievement. Journal of School Psychology, 42, 135 – 155. doi: 10.1016/j.jsp.2003.12.002

Google Scholar Crossref

Young, J. E., Klosko, J., Weishaar, M. E. Schema Therapy: A Practioner’s Guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2003.

Google Scholar Crossref

Downloads

Published

2020-10-24

Almetric

Dimensions

How to Cite

Gomes, A. M., Martins, M. C., Farinha, M., Silva, B., Ferreira, E., Caldas, A. C., & Brandão, T. (2020). Bullying’s Negative Effect on Academic Achievement. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 9(3), 243–268. https://doi.org/10.17583/ijep.2020.4812

Issue

Section

Articles