Fear to Retaliation: The Most Frequent Reason for Not Helping Victims of Gender Violence
Keywords:Second Order of Sexual Harassment, Solidarity Networks, Gender-Based Violence, Help, Witnesses
When faced with situations of gender-based violence, one becomes exposed to risk in giving support to the victim (van Reemst, Fischer, & WC Zwirs, 2015, Hamby, Weber, Grych, & Banyard, 2016; Liebst, Heinskou & Ejbye-Ernst, 2018). This form of violence, second order of sexual harassment (SOSH), occurs when people who support victims of gender-based violence experience violence themselves because of this positioning (Vidu et al., 2017; Flecha, 2021). There is little research on the subject. Through a quantitative study carried out with 1541 Spaniards over 18 years of age, we provide, for the first time, quantitative evidence of the incidence of SOSH in the responses of people who have been aware of a situation of gender-based violence. Our results show that SOSH is an important obstacle; 40% of people who did not offer help in the case of gender-based violence did not do so for reasons that correspond to SOSH.
We concluded that the fear of suffering SOSH can condition people’s reactions in the environment, thereby limiting the possibility of female victims of violence receiving help.
Anderson, K.M., Renner, L.M., & Danis, F. S. (2012) Recovery: Resilience and Growth in the Aftermath of Domestic Violence. Violence Against Women, 18(11) 1279-1299. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801212470543.
Ansara, D. L., & Hindin, M. J. (2010). Formal and informal help-seeking associated with women's and men's experiences of intimate partner violence in Canada. Social Science & Medicine, 70, 1011-1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.12.009.
Banyard, V. L., & Moynihan, M. M. (2011). Variation in bystander behavior related to sexual and intimate partner violence prevention: Correlates in a sample of college students. Psychology of Violence, 1, 287-301. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023544.
Banyard, V. L., Plante, E. G., & Moynihan, M. M. (2004). Bystander Education: Bringing a Broader Community Perspective to Sexual Violence Prevention. Journal of Community Psychology, 32(1), 61-79. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.10078.
Campbell, J., Rose, L., Kub, J., & Nedd, D. (1998). Voices of strength and resistance: A contextual and longitudinal analysis of women's responses to battering. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 13(6), 743-762. https://doi.org/10.1177/088626098013006005.
Cook-Craig, P. G., Millspaugh, P., Recktenwald, E., Kelly, N., Hegge, L., Coker, A., & Pletcher, T. (2014). From Empower to Green Dot: Successful strategies and lessons learned in developing comprehensive sexual violence primary prevention programming. Violence Against Women, 20, 1162-1178. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801214551286.
Government Delegation against Gender Violence. (2019). Macroencuesta de Violencia contra la Mujer. Ministry of Equality.
Dziech, B.W., & Weiner, L. (1990). The Lecherous Professor: Sexual Harassment on Campus. University of Illinois Press.
European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. (2014). Violence against women: an EU-wide survey. Main results report. Publications Office of the European Union.
Evans, M. A., & Feder, G. S. (2015). Help-seeking amongst women survivors of domestic violence: a qualitative study of pathways towards formal and informal support. Health Expectations, 19, 62-73. https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.12330.
Fanslow, J. L., & Robinson, E. M. (2010). Help-Seeking Behaviors and Reasons for Help Seeking Reported by a Representative Sample of Women Victims of Intimate Partner Violence in New Zealand. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(5), 929-951. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260509336963.
Flecha, R. (2021). Second Order of Sexual Harassment (SOSH): Violence against the Silence Breakers who Support the Victims. Violence Against Women. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801220975495.
Fugate, M., Landis, L., Riordan, K., Naureckas, S., & Engel , B. (2005). Barriers to Domestic Violence Help Seeking: Implications for Intervention. Violence Against Women, 11(3), 290-310. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801204271959.
García-Hernández, R. J., Hernández-Sánchez, J. E., & García-Martínez, V. (2020). Sexual Harassment in a Higher Education Institution. Multidisciplinary Journal of Gender Studies, 9(3), 210-233. https://doi.org/10.17583/generos.2020.5609.
Gelles, R. J., & Cornell, C. P. (1985). Intimate violence in families. Sage.
Goodman, L. A., Dutton, M. A., Vankos, N., & Weinfurt, W. (2005). Women's resources and use of strategies as risk and protective factors for reabuse over time. Violence Against Women, 11, 311-336. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801204273297.
Goodman, L.A., Banyard, V., Woulfe, J., Ash, S., & Mattern, G. (2016). Bringing a Network-Oriented Approach to Domestic Violence Services: A Focus Group Exploration of Promising Practices. Violence Against Women, 22(1), 64-89. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801215599080.
Goodman, L. A., & Smyth, K. F.. (2011). A call for a social network-oriented approach to services for survivors of intimate partner violence. Psychology of Violence, 1, 79-92. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022977.
Hamby, S., Weber, M.C., Grych, J.H., & Banyard, V. (2016). What Difference do Bystanders Make? The Association of Bystander Involvement with Victim Outcomes in a Community Sample. Psychology of Violence, 6, 91-102. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039073.
Jouriles, E.N., Sargent, K.S., Salis, K.L., Caiozzo, C., Rosenfield, D., Cascardi, M., Grych, J.H. O'Leary, K.D., & McDonald, R. (2017). TakeCARE, a Video to Promote Bystander Behavior on College Campuses: Replication and Extension. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517718189.
Kania, R., & Cale, J. (2018). Preventing Sexual Violence Through Bystander Intervention: Attitudes, Behaviors, Missed Opportunities, and Barriers to Intervention Among Australian University Students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260518764395.
Koegler, E., Kennedy, C., Mrindi, J., Bachunguye, R., Winch, P., Ramazani, P., Makambo, M. T., & Glass, N. (2019). Understanding How Solidarity Groups-A Community-Based Economic and Psychosocial Support Intervention-Can Affect Mental Health for Survivors of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Violence Against Women, 25(3), 359-374. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801218778378.
Latane, B., & Darley, J. M. (1970). The unresponsive bystander: Why doesn't he help? Appleton-Century-Croft.
LaViollete, A., & Barnett, O. (2000). It could happen to anyone. Why battered women stay. Sage Publications.
Lempert, L. B. (1997). The other side of help: Negative effects in the help-seeking processes of abused women. Qualitative Sociology, 20(2), 289-309. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024769920112.
Liang, B., Goodman, L., Tummala-Narra, P., & Weintraub, S. (2005). A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Help-Seeking Processes Among Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence. American Journal of Community Psychology Community Psychology, 36(1/2). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-005-6233-6.
Liebst, L.S., Heinskou, M. B., Ejbye-Ernst, P. (2018). On the Actual Risk of Bystander Intervention: A Statistical Study Based on Naturally Occurring Violent Emergencies. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 55(1), 27-50. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022427817710776.
McMahon, S., Palmer, J.E., Banyard, V., Murphy, M. & Gidycz, C.A. (2017). Measuring Bystander Behavior in the Context of Sexual Violence Prevention: Lessons Learned and New Directions. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 32(16) 2396-2418. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515591979.
Melgar, P. (2019-2021). SOL.NET. Solidarity networks with impact on gender-based violence victims' recovery processes [SOL.NET Solidarity networks with impact on gender-based violence victims' recovery processes]. Ministry of Science and Innovation, Government of Spain. Grant agreement: RTI2018-096947-A-I00.
Melgar, P., Campdepadrós-Cullell, R., Fuentes-Pumarola, C., & Mut-Montalvà, E. (2021). 'I think I will need help': A systematic review of who facilitates the recovery from gender-based violence and how they do so. Health Expectations, 24(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.13157.
Puigvert, L., Flecha, R., Racionero, S., & Sordé-Martí, T. (2019). Socioneruroscience and its contributions to conscious versus unconscious volition and control. The case of gender violence prevention. AIMS Neuroscience, 6(3). 204-218. https://doi.org/10.3934/Neuroscience.2019.3.204
Racionero-Plaza, S., Duque E., Padrós M., & Roldán S.M. (2021) "Your Friends Do Matter": Peer Group Talk in Adolescence and Gender Violence Victimization. Children., 8(2), 65. https://doi.org/10.3390/children802006.
Sainio, M., Veenstra, R., Huitsing, G., & Salmivalli, C. (2011). Victims and Their Defenders: A Dyadic Approach. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 35, 144-51. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025410378068.
Saint Arnault, D. M., & O'Halloran, S. (2016). Using mixed methods to understand the healing trajectory for rural Irish women years after leaving abuse. Journal of Research in Nursing, 21(5-6), 369-383. https://doi.org/10.1177/1744987116649636.
Sinko, L., & Saint Arnault, D. (2019). Finding the Strength to Heal: Understanding Recovery After Gender-Based Violence. Violence Against Women, 11, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801219885185.
van Reemst, L., Fischer T., & WC Zwirs, B. (2015). Response Decision, Emotions, and Victimization of Police Officers. European Journal of Criminology 12(6), 635-657. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370815587767.
Vidu, A., Tomás, G., & Flecha, R. (2021). Pioneer Legislation on Second Order of Sexual Harassment: Sociolegal Innovation in Addressing Sexual Harassment. Sexuality Research and Social Policy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13178-021-00571-0.
Vidu, A., Valls, R., Puigvert, L. Melgar, P., & Joanpere, M. (2017). Second Order of Sexual Harassment - SOSH. Multidisciplinary Journal of Educational Research, 7(1), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.17583/remie.2017.2505.
Waldrop, A. E., & Resick, P. A. (2004). Coping Among Adult Female Victims of Domestic Violence. Journal of Family Violence, (19)5, 291-302. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:JOFV.0000042079.91846.68.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 International and Multidisciplinary Journal of Social Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access Policy: this work is licensed under a Creative Commons CC BY License.
All the manuscripts should be available through the Electronic platform where the Journal is based (Open Journal System).
Since its foundation in 2012, RIMCIS has not charged Article Processing Charges (APCs) to the authors for the publication of their manuscripts. Despite the voluntary work that is carried out, the expenses associated with both the publication process and the necessary services for publication are not covered. From June 19th 2021, these processing charges should be covered by the authors once the articles are accepted. Thus, authors will pay 600 euros to cover these charges (plus 21% VAT only applicable to payments from institutions, companies, individuals and professionals residing in Spain; individuals residing in the EU, and companies, organizations and professionals residing in the EU without VAT Number).
RIMCIS does not have article's submission charge.