The Effects of COVID 19 on Health Care Workers: Analysing of the Interaction between Optimism, Job Stress and Emotional Exhaustion
Keywords:COVID-19, Health Care Workers, Optimism, Job Stress, Emotional Exhaustion
This research has focused on determining the levels of optimism, stress and emotional exhaustion of health care workers related to COVID-19 and the effect of optimism directly and indirectly (through job stress) on emotional exhaustion caused by Covid-19. The data were collected through an online questionnaire with optimism, job stress and emotional exhaustion scales arranged according to COVID-19. The data collected from 169 health care workers working in a city in Turkey were analysed using different statistical programs. The findings obtained has shown that the employees are quite optimistic in this process, and they have also experienced stress and emotional exhaustion even though their levels are lower than optimism. Also, it has been determined that being optimistic despite COVID-19 affects emotional exhaustion caused by COVID-19 both directly and indirectly through work stress. Therefore, the level of optimism in this process has reduced the emotional exhaustion caused by COVID-19; however, this decrease was felt stronger through stress. These findings have contributed to both healthcare managers and relevant official institutions, and to researches related to COVID-19.
Abraham, W. T. (2007). Dispositional optimism and pessimism: stability, change, and adaptative recovery following life event experience. Phd thesis. Iowa State University, Iowa. https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=16624&context=rtd (Accessed 31 May 2020).
Acar, Y. (2020). Yeni koronavirüs (covıd-19) salgını ve turizm faaliyetlerine etkisi. Güncel Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi, 4(1), 7-21.
Akca, M. (2020). COVİD-19’un havacılık sektörüne etkisi. Avrasya Sosyal ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 7(4), 45-64.
Alarcon, G.M., Bowling, N.A. & Khazon, S. (2013). Great expectations: A meta-analytic examination of optimism and hope. Personality and Individual Differences, 54, 821- 827.
Argentero, P., Dell’Olivo B. & Ferretti, M.S. (2008). Staff Burnout and Patient Satisfaction With the Quality of Dialysis Care, American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 51(1), 80-92. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.09.011.
Aslan, R. (2020). Tarihten günümüze epidemiler, pandemiler ve Covid-19. Ayrıntı Dergisi, 8(85).
Atkeson, A. G. 2020. What will be the economic impact of COVID-19 in the US? Rough estimates of disease scenarios, Staff Report 595, Federal Reserve bank of Minneapolis. http://acdc2007.free.fr/nber26867.pdf (Accessed 31 May 2020).
Azagba, S. & Sharaf, M. F. (2011). The effect of job stress on smoking and alcohol consumption. Azagba and Sharaf Health Economics Review, 1(15), 1-14. http://www.healtheconomicsreview.com/content/1/1/15.
Bag, M. & Sade, G. (2020). Dünyada Covid-19: İlk 4 ayında neler yaşandı? Salgının seyri ne durumda? https://tr.euronews.com/2020/05/04/dunyada-covid-19-salg-n-n-ilk-100-gununde-yasananlar-ilk-nerede-ortaya-c-kt-nas-l-yay-ld (Accessed 12 May 2020).
Bitmiş, M. G. (2014). Öncülleri ve sonuçları ile psikolojik sermaye: sağlık çalışanları üzerine bir araştırma, yayımlanmamış doktora tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara.
Blais, A., Bol, D., Giani, M., & Loewen, P. J. (2020). The effect of COVID-19 lockdowns on political support: Some good news for democracy? SocArXiv. doi:10.31235/osf.io/7hpj9.
Bostan S, Akbolat M, Kaya A, Ozata M. & Gunes D (2020b). Assessments of anxiety levels and working conditions of health employees working in COVİD-19 pandemic hospitals. Electron J Gen Med, 17(5):em246. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/8228
Bostan S, Erdem R, Öztürk YE, Kılıç T. & Yılmaz A. (2020a). The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the turkish society. Electron J Gen Med. 17(6):em237. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/7944
Burgess S & Sievertsen HH (2020). Schools, skills and learning: the impact of COVID-19 on Education, Vox (April 1). https://voxeu.org/article/impact-covid-19-education. (Accessed 31 May 2020).
Cai, H., Tu, B., Ma, J., Chen, L., Fu, L., Jiang, Y., & Zhuang, Q. (2020). Psychological ımpact and coping strategies of frontline medical staff in hunan between January and March 2020 during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei, China. medical science monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 26, e924171-1. DOI: 10.12659/MSM.924171.
Cao, W., Fang, Z., Hou, G., Han, M., Xu, X., Dong, J., & Zheng, J. (2020). The psychological impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on college students in China. Psychiatry Research, 112934. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112934
Carver, C. S., Pozo, C., Harris, S. D., Noriega, V., Scheier, M. F., Robinson, D. S., Ketcham, A. S., Moffat, F. L., Jr., & Clark, K. C. (1993). How coping mediates the effect of optimism on distress: A study of women with early stage breast cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 375-390.
Carver, C.S., Scheier, M.F., & Segerstrom, S.C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 879-889
Chang, E. C., & Sanna, L. J. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and positive and negative affectivity in middle-aged adults: A test of a cognitive-affective model of psychological adjustment. Psychology and Aging, 16, 524-531.
Chang, Y. & Chan, H.-J. (2015). Optimism and proactive coping in relation to burnout among nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 23, 401-408.
Chen, H., Richard, O. C., Boncoeur, O. D. & Ford, D. L. (2020). Work engagement, emotional exhaustion, and counterproductive work behavior. Journal of Business Research, 114, 30-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.03.025.
Chew, N. W., Lee, G. K., Tan, B. Y., Jing, M., Goh, Y., Ngiam, N. J., ... & Sharma, A. K. (2020). A multinational, multicentre study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during covid-19 outbreak. Brain, behavior, and immunity. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.049
Cordes, C. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (1993). A review and an integration of research on job burnout. Academy of Management Review, 18(4), 621-656.
Cutrona, C. E., Russell, D. W., Hessling, R. M., Brown, P. A., & Murry, V. (2000). Direct and moderating effects of community context on the psychological well-being of African American women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 1088-1101.
Çalışkan, H., & Uzunkol, E. (2018). Ergenlerde iyimserlik-kötümserlik ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi: geçerlilik ve güvenirlik çalışması. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, 6(2), 78-95.
Çetin, F., Şeşen, H., & Basım, H. N. (2013). Örgütsel psikolojik sermayenin tükenmişlik sürecine etkileri: Kamu sektöründe bir araştırma. Anadolu University Journal of Social Sciences, 13(3).
Dewey, C., Hingle, S., Goelz, E., & Linzer, M. (2020). Supporting clinicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. Annals of Internal Medicine. doi:10.7326/M20-1033
Dishop, C. R., Green, A. E., Torres, E. & Aarons, G. A. (2019). Predicting turnover: The moderating efect of functional climates on emotional exhaustion and work attitudes. Community Mental Health Journal, 55, 733–741. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-019-00407-7.
Ferreira, A. I., Ferreira, P. A. N. da C., Cooper, C. L. & Oliveira, D. (2019). How daily negative affect and emotional exhaustion correlates with work engagement and presenteeism-constrained productivity. International Journal of Stress Management. 1-37. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/str0000114.
Gautam, R., & Sharma, M. (2020). 2019-nCoV Pandemic: A disruptive and stressful atmosphere for Indian academic fraternity. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.025
George, D. & Mallery, P. (2016). IBM SPSS statistics 23 step by step: A simple guide and reference. Routledge.
Gillham J. & Reivich, K. (2004). Cultivating optimism in childhood and adolescence. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591, 146-163.
Gössling, S., Scott, D., & Hall, C. M. (2020). Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2020.1758708
Gramstad, T.O., Gjestad, R. & Haver, B. (2013). Personality traits predict job stress, depression and anxiety among junior physicians. BMC Medical Education, 13(150), 1-9. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6920/13/150.
Güçlü, N.(2001). Stres Yönetimi, G.Ü. Gazi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 21(1): 91-109.
Joob, B., & Wiwanitkit, V. (2020). Traumatization in medical staff helping with COVID-19 control. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.020
Jourdain, G. &
Chenevert, D. (2010). Job demands–resources, burnout and intention to leave the nursing profession: A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47, 709-722.
Kaya, E. (2010). İş stresi ve tükenmişlik duygusunun işten ayrılma niyeti üzerine etkileri: Sağlık personeli üzerinde bir uygulama. Gebze Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Gebze.
Kerse, G. (2017). Adaptation the Turkish language of the job crafting scale and relationship between job crafting and emotional exhaustion. Journal of Business Research Türk, 9(4), 283-304.
Kim, Y., Lee, E. & Lee, H. (2019). Association between workplace bullying and burnout, professional quality of life, and turnover intention among clinical nurses. PLoS ONE 14(12): e0226506. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0226506.
Kwok, K. O., Li, K. K., Chan, H. H., Yi, Y. Y., Tang, A., Wei, W. I., & Wong, Y. S. (2020). Community responses during the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in Hong Kong: risk perception, information exposure and preventive measures. medRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.26.20028217.
Lai, J., Ma, S., Wang, Y., Cai, Z., Hu, J., Wei, N., ... & Tan, H. (2020). Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Network Open, 3(3), e203976-e203976.
LaMontagne, A. D., Keegel, T. Louie, A. M. & Ostry, A. (2010). Job stress as a preventable upstream determinant of common mental disorders: A review for practitioners and policy-makers. Journal Advances in Mental Health Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention, 9 (1), 17-35. https://doi.org/10.5172/jamh.9.1.17.
Lee, M. & Bernstein, K. (2013). Effect of workplace bullying and job stress on turnover intention in hospital nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 22(2), 77-87. https://doi.org/10.12934/jkpmhn.2013.22.2.77.
Leung, M. ‐y., Chan, Y. S. I. & Dongyu, C. (2011). Structural linear relationships between job stress, burnout, physiological stress, and performance of construction project managers. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, Vol. 18 No. 3, pp. 312-328. https://doi.org/10.1108/09699981111126205
Li, J. B., Yang, A., Dou, K., Wang, L. X., Zhang, M. C., & Lin, X. (2020a). Chinese public’s knowledge, perceived severity, and perceived controllability of the COVID-19 and their associations with emotional and behavioural reactions, social participation, and precautionary behaviour: a national survey. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/5tmsh.
Li, Z., Ge, J., Yang, M., Feng, J., Qiao, M., Jiang, R., ... & Zhou, Q. (2020b). Vicarious traumatization in the general public, members, and non-members of medical teams aiding in COVID-19 control. Brain, Behavior, and İmmunity. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.007.
Maslach, C., & Jackson, S.E. (1981).The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99-113.
Maslach, C., Jackson, S.E. & Leiter, M.P. (1997). Maslach burnout ınventory. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, 191-218.
Michie, S. (2002). Causes and management of stress at work. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(1): 67-72.
Moazzami, B., Razavi-Khorasani, N., Moghadam, A. D., Farokhi, E., & Rezaei, N. (2020). COVID-19 and telemedicine: immediate action required for maintaining healthcare providers well-being. Journal of Clinical Virology 126 (2020) 104345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104345
Ocak, M. & Güler, M. (2017). Psikolojik sermayenin tükenmişlik üzerine etkisi: Görgül bir araştırma. Erciyes Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, (49), 117-134.
Park, Y.-M. & Kim, S. Y. (2013). Impacts of job stress and cognitive failure on patient safety incidents among hospital nurses. Safety and Health at Work, 4 (4), 210-215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2013.10.003.
Pourhaji, F., Ghanbarizadeh, S. R., Zarmehri, H. A., Bazrafshan, E., & Gholian-Aval, M. (2020). Community responses during early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic: a cross-sectional study. medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.04.20053546
Qiu, J., Shen, B., Zhao, M., Wang, Z., Xie, B., & Xu, Y. (2020). A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry, 33(2). doi: 10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213
Rana, W., Mukhtar, S., & Mukhtar, S. (2020). Mental health of medical workers in Pakistan during the pandemic COVID-19 outbreak. Asian Journal of Psychiatry 51 (2020) 102080.
Rizwan, M., Waseem, A. & Bukhari, S. A. (2014). Antecedents of Job Stress and its impact on Job Performance and Job Satisfaction. International Journal of Learning & Development, 4(2), 187-203.
Salami, S. O. (2011). Job stress and burnout among lecturers: Personality and social support as moderators. Asian Social Science, Vol. 7, No. 5, 110-121.
Sosik, J. J. & Godshalk, V. M. (2000). Leadership styles, mentoring functions received, and job-related stress: A conceptualmodel and preliminary study, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(4), 365-390.
Sultana, A., Sharma, R., Hossain, M. M., Bhattacharya, S., & Purohit, N. (2020). Burnout among healthcare providers during COVID-19 pandemic: Challenges and evidence-based interventions. SocArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/4hxga https://ideas.repec.org/p/osf/socarx/4hxga.html (accessed on 7 May 2020).
Thanacoody, P.R., Newman A. & Fuchs, S. (2014). Affective commitment and turnover intentions among healthcare professionals: the role of emotional exhaustion and disengagement. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(13), 1841–1857. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2013.860389.
Tokmak, M. (2018). Pozitif psikolojik sermayenin tükenmişlik üzerine etkileri: Kamu çalışanlarına yönelik bir araştırma. Journal of Management & Economics, 25(3). Doi Number: 10.18657/yonveek.419469.
Tuithof, M., ten Have, M., Beekman, A., van Dorsselaer, S., Kleinjan, M., Schaufeli, W., & de Graaf, R. (2017). The interplay between emotional exhaustion, common mental disorders, functioning and health care use in the working population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 100, 8-14.
Turunç, Ö., & Çelık, M. (2010). Çalışanların algıladıkları örgütsel destek ve iş stresinin örgütsel özdeşleşme ve iş performansına etkisi. Journal of Management & Economics, 17(2).
Türkmen, M., & Özsarı, A. (2020). Covid-19 Salgını ve Spor Sektörüne Etkileri. International Journal of Sport Culture and Science. https://doi.org/10.14486/IntJSCS.2020.596
van Daalen, G. Willemsen, T. M., Sanders, K. & van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. (2009). Emotional exhaustion and mental health problems among employees doing “people work”: the impact of job demands, job resources and family-to-work conflict. Int Arch Occup Environ Health, 82, 291–303. DOI 10.1007/s00420-008-0334-0.
van Holm, E., Monaghan, J., Shahar, D. C., Messina, J. P., & Surprenant, C. (2020). The impact of political ideology on concern and behavior during covid-19. SSRN 3573224. doi:https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3573224
Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S. et. al. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729.
Wright, T. A. & Cropanzano, R. (1998). Emotional exhaustion as a predictor of job performance and voluntary turnover. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(3), 486-493.
Xiao, H., Zhang, Y., Kong, D., Li, S., & Yang, N. (2020). The effects of social support on sleep quality of medical staff treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China. Medical science monitor: İnternational Medical Journal Of Experimental and Clinical Research, 26, e923549-1. DOI: 10.12659/MSM.923549
Zhang, W. R., Wang, K., Yin, L., Zhao, W. F., Xue, Q., Peng, M. et. al. (2020) Mental health and psychosocial problems of medical health workers during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic, Apr 9, 1-9. doi: 10.1159/000507639.
Zheng, M., Gao, Y., Wang, G., Song, G., Liu, S., Sun, D., ... & Tian, Z. (2020). Functional exhaustion of antiviral lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 17(5), 533-535. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-0402-2
URL 1. https://news.google.com/covid19/map?hl=tr&gl=TR&ceid=TR:tr (Accessed 12 May 2020).
How to Cite
Open Access Policy: this work is licensed under a Creative Commons CC BY License.
All the manuscripts should be available through the Electronic platform where the Journal is based (Open Journal System).
RIMCIS does not charge Article Processing Charges (APCs) to its authors for publication.
RIMCIS does not have article's submission charge.