An Investigation of Dispositional Resistance, Change-specific Resistance and Change-Related Information: The Case of the “4+4+4” Educational Reform in Turkey

Mahmut Kalman, Fatih Bozbayindir


The purpose of the current study was to investigate teachers’ attitudes towards change, dispositional and change-specific resistance, and their perceptions of change-related information, within the context of the recent system-wide educational change, widely known as “4+4+4 Reform Initiative”, in Turkey.  The researchers conducted a mixed research study comprising a quantitative analysis of teachers’ attitudes towards the change in the Turkish education system and a sequential qualitative analysis of teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and intentions toward the change. The sample of the study consisted of 402 primary and middle schools teachers selected randomly. Research results indicated that teachers resisted to the recent change cognitively, affectively and intentionally, respectively. The highest resistance level was associated with cognitive resistance. Teachers’ perceptions of change-related information were at the “disagree” level. The paper concludes by drawing implications for educational reform initiatives in Turkey. 


Educational change; the 4+4+4 education system; teachers’ attitudes toward change; dispositional resistance to change; change-related information

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REMIE - Multidisciplinary Journal of Educational Research | ISSN: 2014-2862

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