An Investigation of Dispositional Resistance, Change-specific Resistance and Change-Related Information: The Case of the “4+4+4” Educational Reform in Turkey

Mahmut Kalman, Fatih Bozbayindir

Abstract


The purpose of the current study was to investigate teachers’ attitudes towards change, dispositional and change-specific resistance, and their perceptions of change-related information, within the context of the recent system-wide educational change, widely known as “4+4+4 Reform Initiative”, in Turkey.  The researchers conducted a mixed research study comprising a quantitative analysis of teachers’ attitudes towards the change in the Turkish education system and a sequential qualitative analysis of teachers’ attitudes, beliefs and intentions toward the change. The sample of the study consisted of 402 primary and middle schools teachers selected randomly. Research results indicated that teachers resisted to the recent change cognitively, affectively and intentionally, respectively. The highest resistance level was associated with cognitive resistance. Teachers’ perceptions of change-related information were at the “disagree” level. The paper concludes by drawing implications for educational reform initiatives in Turkey. 


Keywords


Educational change; the 4+4+4 education system; teachers’ attitudes toward change; dispositional resistance to change; change-related information

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akşit, N. (2007). Educational reform in Turkey. International Journal of Educational Development, 27: 129-137.

Armenakis, A. A. & Harris, S. G. (2009): Reflections: Our journey in organizational change research and practice, Journal of Change Management, 9:2,127-142.

Armenakis, A. A., Bernerth, J. B., Pitts, J. P. & Walker, H. J. (2007). Organizational change recipients’ beliefs scale: Development of an assessment instrument. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 43(4), 481-505.

Bouckenooghe, D. (2010). Positioning change recipients’ attitudes toward change in the organizational change literature. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 46: 500-531.

Bovey, W. H. & Hede, A. (2001). Resistance to organizational change: The role of cognitive and affective processes. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 22(8):372-382.

Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2008). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı: İstatistik, araştırma deseni, SPSS uygulamaları ve yorum (Handbook of data analysis for the social sciences: Statistics, research design, research applications of SPSS and interpretation). Ankara: Pegem Publication.

Day, C. (2002). School reform and transitions in teacher professionalism and identity. International Journal of Educational Research, 37(2), 677–692.

Fraenkel, J., Wallen, N. & Hyun, H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education. 8th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill.

Fullan, M. (2006). The future of educational change: system thinkers in action. Journal of Educational Change, 7: 113–122.

Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change. (4th ed.), New York: Teachers College Press.

Fullan, M. (2010). Positive pressure, In A. Hargreaves et al. (eds.), Second international handbook of educational change, Dordrecht: Springer.

Gedikoğlu, T. (2005). Turkish education system in the process of European Community: Problems and solutions. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 1(1):66-80.

Güçlü, N., Özer, A., Kurt, T. & Kandemir, M. (2010). Öğretmenlerin yeni ilköğretim programına ilişkin tutumlarının, epistemolojik inançlarına ve değişime direnme tutumlarına dayalı olarak yordanması. V. Ulusal Eğitim Yönetimi Kongresi (Vth National Educational Administration Conference), 1-2 May 2010, Antalya, Turkey.

Harris, A. (2002). School improvement: What’s in it for schools?. London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Holt, D. T., Armenakis, A. A., Harris, S. G. & Feild, H. S. (2007). Toward a comprehensive definition of readiness for change: A review of research and instrumentation. In W. A. Pasmore & R. W. Woodman (Eds.). Research in Organizational Change and Development, Vol. 16, pp. 289- 336, Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

James, C. (2010). The psychodynamics of educational change. In A. Hargreaves et al. (Eds.), Second international handbook of educational change, Dordrecht: Springer.

James, C. (2011). The importance of affective containment for teacher effectiveness and successful educational change. In C. Day & J. C.-K. Lee (eds.), New understandings of teacher’s work: Emotions and educational change, Dordrecht: Springer.

Jimmieson, N. L., Terry, D. J. & Callan, V. J. (2004). A longitudinal study of employee adaptation to organizational change: The role of change-related ınformation and change-related self-efficacy. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9 (1):11-27.

Karasar, N. (2009). Scientific research methods (Bilimsel araştırma yöntemi). Ankara: Nobel Printing and Distribution.

Kondakçı, Y., Zayim, M. & Çalışkan, Ö. (2013). Development and validation of readiness for change scale. Elementary Education Online, 12(1), 23-35.

Lamm, E. & Gordon, J. R. (2010). Empowerment, predisposition to resist change, and support for organizational change, Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 17(4) 426– 437.

Lau, C. & Woodman, R. W. (1995). Understanding organizational change: A schematic perspective, The Academy of Management Journal, 38(2), pp. 537-554.

Lewis, L. K. (2011). Organizational change: Creating change through strategic communication. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.

Liu, Y. & Perrewé, P. L. (2005). Another look at the role of emotion in the organizational change: A process model. Human Resource Management Review. 15:263-280.

Miller, V. D., Johnson, J. R. & Grau, J. (1994). Antecedents to willingness to participate in a planned organizational change. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 22, 59–80.

MONE (The Ministry of National Education) (2012). Twelve-year compulsory education: Questions and answers (12 yıllık zorunlu eğitim: Sorular ve cevaplar), Ankara. Retrieved May 12, 2013 from www.meb.gov.tr.

Newton, C. & Tarrant, T. (1992). Managing change in schools: A practical handbook. London: Routledge.

Oreg, S. (2003). Resistance to change: Developing an individual differences measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(4), 587-604.

Oreg, S. (2006). Personality, context, and resistance to organizational change, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 15:1, 73-101.

Oreg, S., Bayazit, M., Vakola, M., Arciniega L., Armenakis, A.A., Barkauskiene, R. et al. (2008). Dispositional resistance to change: Measurement equivalence and the link to personal values across 17 nations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93: 935-944.

Oreg, S., Vakola, M. & Armenakis, A. (2011). Change recipients’ reactions to organizational change: A 60-year review of quantitative studies, The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 47(4), 461– 524.

Piderit, S. K. (2000). Rethinking resistance and recognizing ambivalence: A multidimensional view of attitudes toward and organizational change. Academy of Management Journal, 25: 783-794.

Rafferty, A. E., Jimmieson, N. L. & Armenakis, A. A. (2013). Change readiness: A multilevel review. Journal of Management. 39(1), pp. 110-135.

Reeves, D. B. (2009). Leading change in your school: How to conquer myths, build commitment, and get results. Alexandria: The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Reio, T. G. (2005). Emotions as a lens to explore teacher identity and change: A commentary. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21:985-993.

Reio, T. G. (2011). Teacher emotions and socialization-related learning in the context of educational change. In C. Day & J. C.-K. Lee (eds.), New understandings of teacher’s work: Emotions and educational change, Dordrecht: Springer.

Reyes, V. C. (2014). How do school leaders navigate ICT educational reform? Policy learning narratives from a Singapore context. International Journal of Leadership in Education: Theory and Practice, doi: 10.1080/13603124.2014.982200.

Robbins, S. P. & Coulter, M. (2012). Management, (11th Ed.), Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Saunders, R. (2013). The role of teacher emotions in change: Experiences, patterns and implications for professional development. Journal of Educational Change, 14:303–333.

Schiffer, E. F. (2011). Resistance to change: Implications of individual differences in expression of resistance to change. University of South Florida, UMI 3443923, ProQuest LLC.

Sloyan, R. M. & Ludema, J. D. (2010).That's not how I see it: How trust in the organization, leadership, process, and outcome influence individual responses to organizational change. In William A. Pasmore, Abraham B. (Rami) Shani & Richard W. Woodman (Eds.) Research in Organizational Change and Development, (Vol.18), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 233-277.

van Dam, K., Oreg, S. & Schyns, B. (2008). Daily work contexts and resistance to organisational change: The role of leader–member exchange, development climate, and change process characteristics. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57 (2), 313–334.

van Veen, K. & Sleegers, T. (2009). Teachers’ emotions in a context of reforms: To a deeper understanding of teachers and reforms. In P.A. Schutz and M. Zembylas (eds.), Advances in teacher emotion research: The impact on teachers’ lives, Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 233-251.

van Veen, K., Sleegers, P. & van de Ven, P. (2005). One teacher’s identity, emotions, and commitment to change: A case study into the cognitive–affective processes of a secondary school teacher in the context of reforms. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21:917-934.

Wanberg C. R. & Banas J. T. (2000). Predictors and outcomes of openness to changes in a workplace. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85:132–142.

Yukl, G. A. (2010). Leadership in organizations, (7th Edition), Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17583/remie.2017.2622

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



REMIE - Multidisciplinary Journal of Educational Research | ISSN: 2014-2862

Depósito Legal: B.34290-2012 | http://remie.hipatiapress.com | remie@hipatiapress.com